The Earth Sciences need women!

In the United States, men outnumber women in many science and engineering fields by nearly 3 to 1. In fields like physics or the geosciences, the gender gap can be even wider. Emily Fischer, professor of atmospheric science at Colorado State University, is the lead investigator on a $1.7 million National Science Foundation grant to close that gap in the geosciences, which encompass mining and geology, atmospheric sciences, issues related to natural resource management, natural disaster forecasting, and oceanography. Developing a program Fischer and her team intend to bolster the number of female undergraduate students earning degrees in the geosciences or going on to graduate school in these fields. They are developing a program to be piloted on the Colorado Front Range and in the Carolinas. Team members include: Silvia Sara Canetto, CSU psychology professor; Paul R. Hernandez, professor of educational psychology at West Virginia University; Laura Sample McMeeking, associate director of CSU’s STEM Center; Rebecca Barnes, professor of environmental sciences at Colorado College; Sandra Clinton, professor of geography and earth sciences at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte, and Manda Adams, a professor associated with the University of North Carolina-Charlotte who is currently on an appointment at NSF (working with the geoscience project team as part of her independent research and development program). Emily Fischer “We want to build the pipeline of female students entering the geosciences,” Fischer said. “Females are underrepresented in the geosciences – at about 16 percent of the workforce. That is the picture in my field too - women represent about 15 percent of atmospheric scientists. It’s even lower when you get into geology.” 2015 and beyond Starting in 2015, the team will recruit 50 first-year female students from CSU, the University of Colorado-Boulder, and the University of Wyoming to attend a workshop where they will learn about educational and career opportunities and meet peers with similar interests. The team will simultaneously recruit a cohort of students from the University of North Carolina Charlotte, Duke University, and the University of South Carolina. From there, the students will be mentored in person by local members of the Earth Science Women’s Network, a nonprofit organization. In addition, female students will have access to a web platform that will enable national-scale peer mentoring. “We are patterning this intervention after outreach programs that we know have been successful with advanced undergraduate and graduate-level women,” Fischer said. “We want to see if this can work with female undergraduate students and get more of them interested in pursuing careers in the geosciences.” Canetto, Hernandez, and Sample McMeeking also will evaluate the program’s effectiveness. The goal is to design an effective, inexpensive recruitment and retention program that can be a model for other universities. “There is evidence that mentoring seems to be an effective tool for women in various disciplines, but there is no scientific data for women in the geosciences,” Fischer said. “We want to collect real data from these students. We want to understand whether mentoring works for undergraduate women in the geosciences and exactly how beneficial these efforts could be.”

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Gamers know grammar, and aren't afraid to use it

Gamers use good grammar? Surprising as it might sound, that's one the findings from studies of online gaming chat led by a CSU researcher.

The studies found that millennials – notorious for misused language and sloppy typing – are actually more accomplished communicators than many of us believed.

“Online chat – especially in games – is often thought of as eroding the typing and self-expression skills of younger people, but our study shows that they are very expressive and do pay attention to how they communicate both with text and non-verbally with their avatars,” said Rosa Mikeal Martey, the study’s lead author and a professor in Colorado State University’s Department of Journalism and Technical Communication.

Multi-tiered study

The studies, conducted by researchers at CSU, Syracuse University, Concordia University and the University at Albany, analyzed the chat, movement and appearance of 201 participants as they played a custom-built quest game in Second Life — a 3D virtual world where users can design their own environments and avatars. A follow-up study compared these findings to 375 players of the multiplayer online game World of Warcraft. The studies set out to see if people’s age is revealed in how they communicate and interact.

The study’s Second Life participants ranged in age from 18 to 64 with an average age of 37, and World of Warcraft participants were between 18 and 54 with an average age of 29. Their appearance, movement, chat and mouse clicks were recorded as they played a two-hour quest game designed by the researchers in each world.

Gamers looking for clues

“People often have a sense of how old other people are after spending time with them online, even if they’ve never met offline – they notice things like how polite people are, their language use and how they express themselves,” said Martey, who became an accomplished World of Warcraft player before immersing herself in the gaming study.

“It’s not just what people say, it’s the types of phrases they use and how they visually interact in virtual space that serve as cues about people’s age online,” says study co-author Jennifer Stromer-Galley, a professor at the School of Information Studies at Syracuse.

Age differences noted

The researchers found that in both Second Life and World of Warcraft, older players were more polite and less emotionally expressive than younger players. In Second Life, older players also used avatars that were more stereotypically attractive than younger players and about half the number of emoticons. In World of Warcraft, younger players jumped about twice as much, moved around 15% more and moved backwards 30% more than older ones.

 “As we found in in our studies of gender, movement reveals a lot about people online – in fact, if you combine gender and age, you see even more clearly that the ones who jump, move backward, and wander around more are most likely to be men under 30,” Martey explained. “Younger players are taking full advantage of the expressive possibilities of the avatar, not just chat – they use that digital self to express themselves just as much if not more than they use words.”

Authors of the study include: Rosa Mikeal Martey, Colorado State University; Jennifer Stromer-Galley, Syracuse University; Mia Consalvo, Concordia University; Jingsi Wu, Hofstra University; Jaime Banks, University of Toronto; Mississauga Tomek Strzalkowski, University at Albany.

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CSU, Google, & Environmental Defense measure methane

Google carFor the past year, Google Street View cars roaming Indianapolis, Boston and New York's Staten Island have captured more than just images. With the help of a Colorado State University team led by Professor Joe von Fischer, the vehicles also measured where and how much methane is leaking from the miles of underground pipelines that deliver natural gas to customers in those cities.

The CSU team helped develop the routes the Google cars drove, and the sophisticated data analysis tools to interpret those methane measures for the project, which is being led by the Environmental Defense Fund.

EDF used the data collected from more than 15 million data points to create interactive maps that depict the thousands of leaks beneath the streets of the three cities. “This complex project started with a rather simple question: can we map and quantify methane leaks in an urban environment?” said von Fischer, an associate professor of biology at CSU. “Researchers, including me, have measured methane concentrations in cities before. The challenge has been the ability to translate methane concentration into understandable leak rate estimates.  This effort not only makes a significant scientific advancement, it helps raise awareness of how much methane is escaping from pipelines in our cities.” A history of studying methane EDF approached von Fischer, who has long studied methane gas and developed new techniques in which to measure natural and man-made sources, to participate in the project nearly two years ago. Several years ago, von Fischer and a CSU undergraduate student designed a sensor system, mounted it to a car and drove around Fort Collins to see if they could measure methane leaks in the city.

For the current project, the CSU team also executed some “controlled release” experiments that enabled researchers to understand how the vehicle systems would perceive leaks of different sizes.  Based in part on these findings, they wrote computer code to analyze data from the vehicles.

CSU team members included Jay Ham, a professor in the Department of Soil and Crop Sciences; David Theobald, an adjunct professor and consultant with Conservation Science Partners; Dan Cooley,  a professor in the Department of Statistics; and Russ Schumacher, a professor in the Department of  Atmospheric Sciences. A tool for utilitiesvon Fischer

One of the goals of the EDF project is to provide utilities with another tool to better detect leaks and prioritize which pipes need to be repaired first.

Utilities regularly monitor systems for leaks, which can pose a safety hazard if they are large enough or close to a building.  If enough natural gas accumulates in a small, confined area and something ignites it, it can cause an explosion. (Natural gas is odorized so people will notice a major leak.) Smaller leaks usually are fixed when pipelines or infrastructure are replaced. That’s because, inspecting miles of pipeline for leaks requires a lot of specialized personnel and equipment and was very time consuming. And while small leaks aren’t considered a safety hazard, they can have a big impact on the environment. Methane is the primary component in natural gas, and is much more potent than carbon dioxide. “One leak on its own isn’t bad, but when you have thousands of small leaks, it adds up,” von Fischer said. “Climate scientists largely agree that methane and other super-charged pollutants are intensifying the rate of the Earth’s warming and negatively affecting our climate.” Von Fischer said the analytical tools the CSU team helped develop for EDF and Google’s methane mapping project makes it much easier to find and assess the size of a leak. He added that the Google Street View cars won’t replace the detailed surveys utilities perform but will complement them. “We still need those guys on the streets looking for every leak they can find,” he said. “But their results aren’t made public, and so the public can’t see how well its infrastructure compares to other cities. This project makes that data visible.” A wide disparity The data collected so far already shows a wide disparity in the amount of methane leaking in Indianapolis, Boston and Staten Island.  Their results show very few leaks in Indianapolis, just one every 150 miles, compared to about one every mile in Boston. “There’s a big difference,” von Fischer said. “It is clear that the aggressive pipeline replacement program in Indianapolis has made a big difference in the leak frequency.” This study is one of several EDF has launched since 2012 to better understand where methane is leaking in the nation’s vast natural gas infrastructure. Leaks occur across the natural gas supply chain, from drilling to production, processing to transmission and delivery to consumers.Some of the EDF studies involve industrial partners, many of which are natural gas companies.In addition to the Google project, CSU is involved in two EDF-sponsored methane projects. CSU researchers are leading efforts to quantify methane emissions from the gathering and processing and transmission and storage portions of the natural gas cycle.

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Nanoparticles may aid oil recovery, frack fluid tracking

Two Colorado State University researchers are examining how nanoparticles move underground, knowledge that could eventually help improve recovery in oil fields and discover where hydraulic fracking chemicals travel.

Vivian Li, assistant professor in the Department of Design and Merchandising, and William Sanford, associate professor in the Department of Geosciences,are trying to find patterns in how certain nanoparticles move underground. If successful, they could train the nanoparticles to indicate when specific chemicals are present in the subsurface, including those found in underground water deposits. These modified "smart" nanoparticles, known as tracers, could sense high pH levels or the presence of hydraulic fracking chemicals.

In the initial phase of their research, funded through a grant from the CSU Water Center, Li and Sanford are testing their specially engineered carbon nanoparticle to see how it moves through the ground. Once they understand how the particle travels through a number of subsurface environments, it could eventually be used to search for chemicals in some of earth's most hostile underground environments.

"We also want to see how nanoparticles affect the composition of the natural environment and how certain elements found in the ground alter the composition of the nanoparticle," explained Li.

Temperature, water saturation, and the physical and chemical composition of the soil are the primary factors that can alter the movement of nanoparticles.

Controversial practice

Hydraulic fracturing of wells has caused a political firestorm in recent years, as Colorado residents have questioned the health and safety risks of injecting chemicals into the ground to free oil and natural gas. There is still debate about whether these chemicals are harming the environment, and some question where the chemicals go after injection, fearing they may be contaminating groundwater supplies.

Using tracers, Li and Sanford theorize they could inject the particles into the earth near fracking sites and allow them to follow subsurface water flow paths to a distance away from the injection site. If the recovered tracers are fluorescent, they are reacting to the fracking chemical they were engineered to detect, demonstrating the path those chemicals traveled.

In continuation of Li's post-doctorate work, these tracers could also be used to improve the recovery of oil from reserves deep within the earth, which would allow scientists to increase the amount of oil that can be pumped, saving time and money on drilling new wells.

"Only about 50 percent of the earth's oil reservoirs are being tapped," Li said. "With the potential to quickly drain the current oil reserves, the need to improve oil recovery and find the other hidden 50 percent becomes extremely important."

Harsh conditions

However, these reservoirs are often very deep in the ground and can be home to extreme conditions that make it difficult for nanoparticles to survive. Many nanoparticles that have been developed cannot withstand the high salinity of the oil reserve and deteriorate in the process of finding the oil. However, Li and Sanford believe they have engineered a nanoparticle that can both survive in the harsh environment and keep its smart abilities for a long period of time.

"The uses of these nanoparticles are potentially quite extensive," explained Sanford. "By creating smart particles we can see how contaminants are distributed in the subsurface, the recovery of economic minerals in water can be done, and the uses in the oil industry are many-fold."

Still in the early stages of the research, Li and Sanford are patenting their new nanoparticle and continue to test it in preparation for studies in the field.

The Department of Design and Merchandising is in CSU’s College of Health and Human Sciences. The Department of Geosciences is part of the Warner College of Natural Resources.

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CSU team helps NASA satellite watch Earth breathe

NASA recently launched its first satellite dedicated to measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide. Colorado State University scientists helped develop the algorithms that will crunch data collected by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 satellite.

Chris O’Dell watched the launch of NASA’s first satellite dedicated to measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide through a thick California fog in the early morning hours on July 2, hoping this time, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory would actually begin orbiting.

An hour or so later he got word. “I’m so excited that the launch of OCO-2 was successful, and we can start collecting data and doing the science this mission was intended for,” said O’Dell, assistant professor of atmospheric science at Colorado State University who has been part of the mission for nearly a decade. A mission years in the making The July 2 launch was a long time coming for O’Dell and a team of researchers from CSU’s Department of Atmospheric Science and Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere. O’Dell started working on the OCO mission as a post-doctoral researcher in 2005. He now leads the CSU team that helped develop the sophisticated algorithms that will crunch data collected by the satellite. [caption id="attachment_615" align="alignright" width="300"]CSU researchers have worked on the NASA OCO mission for several years. Pictured are Andrew Schuh and Igor Polonsky in the front row; David Baker, Robert Nelson, Chris O'Dell, Denis O'Briend and Tom Oda in the middle row; and Tommy Taylor in the back row. CSU researchers have worked on the NASA OCO mission for several years. Pictured are Andrew Schuh and Igor Polonsky in the front row; David Baker, Robert Nelson, Chris O'Dell, Denis O'Briend and Tom Oda in the middle row; and Tommy Taylor in the back row.[/caption] CSU researchers attended the launch of the original OCO satellite in February 2009 and were riding a bus back from California’s Vandenberg Air Force Base when they learned that the mission had ended roughly 11 minutes after launch.

The nose cone of the rocket carrying the OCO satellite failed to separate, plunging the satellite back into the Earth’s atmosphere where it  burned up without ever reaching orbit.

Then, the launch of OCO-2 – a near replica of the original – was delayed a day after a water-based noise abatement system malfunctioned on the launch pad. “CSU has been working hard on this mission for many years now,” O’Dell said. “We’ve been involved with this mission from the original concept design process.” OCO-2 will provide scientists around the world with vital information about the amount of carbon dioxide accumulating in the atmosphere and in natural “sinks” such as plants and oceans. A "missing piece"

Roughly 36 billion tons of carbon dioxide are emitted into the atmosphere annually, which is the equivalent of every U.S. household putting out 40 bags of trash every week for a year.

About half of that stays in the atmosphere and the other half is absorbed by the earth’s oceans, as well as plants on land. What scientists want to understand - what the data collected by OCO-2 will help inform - is where those sinks of atmospheric CO2are located on the planet.  This information will help explain certain phenomena such as why Earth’s plants continue to accumulate greater and greater amounts of carbon dioxide, which indicates they are growing faster than they are dying. Some researchers theorize it’s because warming temperatures are extending growing seasons and enabling plants to grow in once-inhospitable places. Others believe it’s because the Earth’s flora and fauna are bathed in more CO2, a vital ingredient to plant growth. Whichever is the case, data collected by OCO-2 will help researchers determine where carbon dioxide is emitted and where it is taken up, which is considered a key “missing piece” of the climate story. “This information plays a huge role in our ability to predict future climate change,” O’Dell said. A clearer picture The OCO-2 satellite is expected to orbit the Earth for two years and will collect data at a higher resolution and with greater accuracy than has been previously possible. Until this month, the only satellite dedicated to collecting carbon dioxide data was the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite – or GOSAT – which was launched by the Japanese space agency in 2009. And while that data has provided new insight into these carbon dioxide sinks and sources, O’Dell said, it does not have the resolution or accuracy of OCO-2. OCO-2 is equipped with a suite of sensors that can quantify the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide down to about 1 part per million. It takes 24 measurements per second. OCO-2 also will be able measure the faint “glow” emitted by plants undergoing photosynthesis, which will further help to determine “how well and how fast plants are growing in a given area, or conversely if they are under stress and not growing well,” according to O’Dell. “It will give us a better picture of what is happening,” O’Dell added. “We tell people that this data will help us to understand, quite literally, how the Earth breathes.”

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Researcher: 'Hot' yoga yields fitness benefits

Researchers at Colorado State University have produced some of the first scientific evidence that Bikram yoga, a type of "hot yoga," has beneficial effects on fitness. They are also the first to quantify the number of calories burned while practicing this yoga. Brian Tracy, associate professor in CSU’s Department of Health and Exercise Science, presented his lab’s findings in May at the national conference of the American College of Sports Medicine. 90 minutes at 105 degrees Bikram yoga is a standardized 90-minute session featuring 26 postures and two breathing exercises performed in a room heated to 105 degrees Fahrenheit and kept at 40 percent humidity. In his most recent study, which was highlighted in recent online issues of Time and Glamour magazines, Tracy measured the body’s response to a yoga session performed by 19 seasoned 18- to 40-year-old Bikram practitioners – 11 women and eight men. He found that the participants showed elevated heart rates averaging about 160 beats per minute and core temperatures averaging 100.3 degrees F, all within a safe range. Tracy also found that the body’s average metabolic rate, or calories burned, was roughly equivalent to walking briskly (about 3.5 miles an hour) for a full 90 minutes. Some practitioners have reported burning as many as 1,000 calories in one Bikram yoga session, but Tracy said the figure in his study averaged about 460 calories for men and 330 for women. Differences in body size explained the caloric difference between the sexes. Calorie equations According to Tracy, the previous higher calorie estimates are likely due to practitioners using a calculation based on their heart rate response during hot yoga, but that prediction equation is only appropriate for exercise at normal temperatures. Elevated temperatures in the hot yoga studio produce higher heart rates, which doesn’t necessarily translate into higher metabolic rates or calorie consumption, he said. “That prediction equation results in an inflated estimate of the calories being burned,” he said. “We didn’t predict calories burned, we actually measured metabolic rate for the first time. This number of calories burned can still contribute to weight loss with regular participation.” Tracy found that Bikram yoga has a variety of positive effects on fitness and lifestyle, and results vary: The participants’ age, body mass, pace, yoga experience, weight, motivation, and other factors could result in higher or lower calorie-burning and weight loss. Those populations haven’t been scientifically studied yet. Previous research [caption id="attachment_532" align="alignright" width="275"]Colorado State University researchers have produced some of the first scientific evidence that Bikram yoga, a type of "hot yoga," has beneficial effects on fitness. Colorado State University researchers have produced some of the first scientific evidence that Bikram yoga, a type of "hot yoga," has beneficial effects on fitness.[/caption] Tracy’s study builds on previous groundbreaking research from his lab. In 2008, he led the first scientific study on the physiological effects of Bikram yoga, published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, which found that muscle control, balance and strength were improved in a group of test subjects who had never tried Bikram yoga before. In that study, participants undertook an eight-week, 24-session yoga program and showed measurably better results than a control group that remained inactive. In a subsequent 2013 research paper in the same journal, Tracy and his co-authors reported that the subjects showed significant gains in spine, hamstring and shoulder flexibility and improved whole body strength, but cardiovascular performance and aerobic fitness remained largely unchanged, probably due to the brief training period and beginning healthy cardiovascular status of the participants. Tracy’s latest research was funded by Bikram’s Yoga College of India and PURE Action, Inc., a yoga research and education nonprofit advocacy group, neither of which had prior review or control over the results of the study. In addition to collaborators Apurba Mukherjee from the Bikram College and Stacy Hunter from PURE Action, co-authors were CSU doctoral student Megan Fritz and research assistant Amy Grossman. Research lacking Tracy said that considering its popularity and volume of anecdotal positive health effects, there is a dearth of research on Bikram yoga; he and various co-authors have produced two of the five peer-reviewed papers that have been published on the physiological effects of the regimen. The paper on the new study, which would be the sixth, is still being drafted for publication. Bikram yoga, a style introduced to the United States in the 1970s by Bikram Choudhury, is offered at hundreds of licensed studios around the world, taught by instructors who have undergone a specific training program by Bikram’s Yoga College of India, based in Los Angeles. The Department of Health and Exercise Science is in the College of Health and Human Sciences at CSU.

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